Flavoprotein dehydrogenase is an enzyme that transfers electrons into the mitochondrial matrix inside the membrane. It is said to be part of the electron transport chain and is also referred to as coding gene. Cases of deficiency in flavoprotein dehydrogenase can cause a host of human genetic diseases such as glutaric aciduria type II. ETF plays a huge role in the oxidation of fatty acids and catabolism of amino acids. ETF works in choline catabolism as well. The simplest explanation for flavoprotein dehydrogenase is a class of conjugated proteins containing flavins and is involved in oxidation reaction in cell. It was back in the late 1800s when scientific literature first mentions the presence of Flavin in composition of cow’s milk. During that time this was identified as lactochrome. After that in the early 1930s, the same pigment has isolated a range of sources known as
Dehydrogenases of mitochondria cells can be subdivided into two and these are: soluble and membrane bound. Soluble class can be found in the mitochondrial matrix while the membrane bound flavoprotein dehydrogenases fall under this class which is directly linked to the respiratory chain. Since humans are categorize as mammals, mammalian mitochondria flavoprotein dehydrogenases are involved in oxidation of tricarboxylic acid cycle. It was observed during scientific studies that the soluble dehydrogenase of Paracoccus denitrificans which is a bacteria can support growth because of the multitude of flavoprotein dehydrogenases that can be found in mitochondria. When it comes to this membrane bound mitochondria this can be further sub-divided into NADH and succinate dehydrogenase. These two provides ports of entry by reducing the respiratory chains of mitochondria and aerobic bacteria.
Human beings and even other living organisms derive most of their energy source from redox reactions. These are processes that involve the transfer of electrons. These flavoprotein dehydrogenases has a critical role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. These flavocoenzymes participate in the metabolism of drugs as well as toxins. These coenzymes are also involved in the metabolism of vitamins such as Vitamin B6, folate and niacin. Suffice it to say that if there is severe riboflavin deficiency the enzyme systems will not function properly. This can cause health complications and can cause the body to be affected to the point of death.
The simplest explanation of how flavoprotein dehydrogenase functions in the body is that it is formed only by proper absorption of riboflavin. If the body fails to go through this process the results are different kinds of genetic abnormalities such as glutaric aciduria type II, celiac disease, decreased gastro intestinal passage and malignancy of certain sections of the small bowel. Individuals who are place at risk with contracting a disease are those that are receiving phototherapy because of neonatal jaundice and those with inadequate thyroid hormone. Experts have observe that because of riboflavin deficiency Russian and Asian schoolchildren are infected with hookworm.
In the case of glutaric aciduria type II, the defect in this branch of the respiratory chain in GA2 is biochemical and genetic in nature. Suffice it to say that the body needs these flavoprotein dehydrogenases to improve metabolism and to help the body produce more energy. In biochemistry, experts at this field reveals that riboflavin or Vitamin B2. Several of these flavoprotein dehydrogenases contains metal ions and are referred to as metalloflavoprotein. They act as carriers of oxidation-reduction reactions that helps to produce as mentioned: metabolism and energy. In order for the body to metabolize Vitamin B6, folate, iron and niacin, it needs riboflavin. This explains why pregnant mothers suffer from preeclampsia during pregnancy. Sadly, at times this results to severe bleeding and in a worst case scenario even death.
Other effects of riboflavin deficiency can be seen in how it alters the iron absorption in the body. Research shows how riboflavin deficiency can impair the absorption of iron and can cause intestinal loss of iron or impair iron utilization for the synthesis of hemoglobin. For pregnant women it cannot be denied that iron is needed to avoid anemia. According to worldwide statistics, iron deficiency in pregnancy is not just a problem suffered by women living in a certain location. Anemia can affect any women who live in any part of the world. It is responsible for causing perinatal death and even the death of the mother.
To avoid instances of maternal anemia and even death there is a need to supplement with iron or its combination with folic acid. It was explained earlier how there is a need for supplement to ensure that the body will function properly in a healthy state. For those who are seeking cure for genetic abnormalities there is no known permanent cure for this. However, the use of supplements can improve the life of the person affected by these genetic issues to prolong the life of that individual. Some patients are even known riboflavin in certain pharmacological doses. Some of the treatment can be in the form of high carbohydrate, low protein diet, low fat diet, carnitine supplement and other forms of vitamins mentioned here.
Among the water soluble vitamins riboflavin can be found in milk and dairy products. These are common staples in Western diet. There are still other good sources of riboflavin like meat and fish. It was found out that the absence of riboflavin even for just a number of days can result to biochemical signs pf dietary deprivation.
Further studies has been made to help people suffering from genetic abnormalities brought about by inability of the body to function properly. The problem lies in the elderly and those who are in their adolescence because these are the ages when there is a remarkable need for this nutrient. It is surprising that despite the availability of riboflavin rich foods people fail to add this to their diet. If the individual is already suffering from flavoprotein dehydrogenase deficiency all the more that he needs to add supplements to his diet or else his body will breakdown while his health will fail. It was already mentioned that lack of riboflavin can result to lower iron intake which can result to anemia which means the potential health threats mentioned are true to any deficiency of riboflavin. To save a life or prolong its existence there is a need to heed the doctor’s advice that prevention is better than cure. The same thing applies to this genetic deficiencies.